Aplastic anemia: causes, diagnosis and managment

Aplastic anemia is a hematopoietic disorder caused due to T lymphocyte mediated destruction of stem cells resulting in pancytopenia with a cellular bone marrow and normal cell cytogenetics. The causes of aplastic anaemia may be inherited or acquired. The causes and the diagnostic approach, along with spectrum of severity of this disorder is discussed in this presentation. A detailed discussion of the management options, along with pharmacological therapy and supportive therapy in these cases is also discussed. The treatment options include, in addition to a stem cell transplant, anti-thymocyte globulin, cyclosporine, methyprednisolone and eltrombopag (for patients who have failed treatment on combined modality therapy with ATG and cyclosporine)